About Pamukkale

When you come to Pamukkale , you may think that Pamukkale is the only place to see. But there are many interesting spots to visit around Pamukkale.They are must-see places. So below you can have an idea about these places.They are awaiting you.

PAMUKKALE-

History of Hierapolis

The ancient city of Hierapolis that adjacent to Pamukkale Turkey, is known in the annals of archaeology as the “Sacred City” on account of its several temples and the other religious structures clustered in the city.Our knowledge of the city's early years is limited but it is known that it was established at the beginning of the 2nd century BC by Eumenes II.King of Pergamum.The name Hierapolis honours Hiera,the Queen of the Amazons,beloved wife of Telephos,the legendary founder of Pergamum.Eumenes II is also renowned as the builder of the world famous Zeus Altar.

Hierapolis maintained its authentic fabric by following the Hellenistic principles of city formation until the great earthquake that took place during the era of Roman Emperor Nero (60 AD).The city suffered greatly in the earthquake and was completely renovated,assuming the appearance of a typical Roman city.Following the Roman Era,Hierapolis maintained its position as an important centre during the Era.Philip the Apostle was martyred in the city in 80 AD,and the city became an important centre of Christianity after the 4th century AD.

The glorious city was captured by the Turks at the end of the 12th century,It has maintained its historical texture and the importance of its thermal waters has never waned.

Travertines of Pamukkale

Pamukkale-Hierapolis is situated within the territory of Denizli city,and is one of the most important destinations in Turkey.Pamukkale derives its name,which means “Cotton Castle”,from the white travertine deposits formed by thermal springs.Situated on the south western corner of the Anatolian Peninsula,Denizli  provides passage between Central Anatolia and the coastal areas of the Aegean and Mediterranean regions.Pamukkale and the ancient city of Hierapolis are situated 20 kilometres from the city centre of Denizli Turkey.

Seen from a distance the magnificent Travertine Terraces of Pamukkale look like the white clouds of heaven,or a sun-drenched, snow covered series of glittering ridges.As you approach you realise that water is gently falling over the clouds of snow.Closer still, as you wade in ankle deep thermal water,you realise that this is unlike anything you have seen before and you are in for a once in a lifetime experience.

Travertine is a sedimentary rock which is formed under specific conditions as a result of a chemical reaction.The terraces themselves are the product of this process.The geological events that have formed the thermal springs of Pamukkale have also affected a large region.There are 17 thermal springs in the region where the water temperatures vary between 35 and 100 celsus degree.The thermal spring of Pamukkale is one of those springs which have been in use since antiquity,and has provided therapy to humanity through the millennia.The thermal waters of the spring follow a 320 m long channel to the head of the travertine ridge and fall into the travertine terraces,approximately 60-70 meters long,where the deposits form. At the source, the temperature of thermal water is 35-6 celsus degree, and it contains a high concentration of calcium carbonate.When it comes in contact with the oxygen in the air it forms carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide gases,which evaporate and leave deposits of calcium carbonate.Initially,the calcium carbonate deposits are like soft jelly.Over the time it hardens and forms the travertine.However,if visitors are allowed to walk in the cascading pools,that leads to squashing and dispersing the soft jelly of calcium carbonate.At present,thermal water is released over the travertine in a controlled programme.If a large amount of water is allowed to flow on a certain area for a long time it leads to moss formation and darkening of the colour of the travertine.The atmospheric conditions, temperature loss and duration of the flow affect the creation and maintenance of pure whiteness,moss formation and darkening of the colour of the travertine.The atmospheric conditions,temperature loss and duration of the flow affect the creation and maintenance of pure whiteness.

The Association of friends of Hierapolis is constituted in 1987.In 1988 Hierapolis-Pamukkale Turkey was included in the World Heritage list of the convention concerning the protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage.

Antique Pool

Antique pool is historically known for it's healing properties and gorgeous ancient beauty.It is a modern spa complex with a thermal pool that  adjacent to Pamukkale Turkey.The pool is surrounded by lush greenery and in it are marble columns,capitals and plinths that are believed to have fallen from the nearby Temple of Apollo during an earthquake,making this a sacred pool.Mineral-rich fresh water is all the year about 35- 36 C°. Cleopatra is said to have swum in an earlier version of a pool here,but whether she did or not,It looks very clean which is in  Pamukkale Turkey.

APHRODISIAS

The ancient city of Aphrodisias is one of the most important archaeological sites of the late Hellenistic and Roman period in Turkey.It lies in inland Caria in the Meander river basin,230 kilometers southeast of the port of Izmir (ancient Smyrna). Famous for its sanctuary of Aphrodite,the city's goddess, and for its marble sculptors,Aphrodisias enjoyed a long and prosperous existence from the first century BC to the sixth century AD.Today, many of the city's ancient monuments remain standing, and excavations have unearthed an unusual number of marble statues and inscriptions,as well as buildings and other artifacts

The Aphrodisias ancient city, which is located in the city of Geyre within Karacasu, Aydin, was one of the most important architecture, arts, sculpture and worship centers of the antique age.The magnificent ancient city which is 3 kilometers from Geyre,13 kilometers from Karacasu and 98 kilometers Aydin city center of different values for ages.

Two prehistoric settlement mounds mark the earliest habitation of the site,in the sixth or fifth millennium BC.In spite of its long occupation,Aphrodisias remained a small village until the second century BC,the date of the earliest coins and inscriptions attesting the name of the city and an active political community.In the late first century BC, the city came under the protection of the emperor Augustus, and the first and second centuries AD were a time of great prosperity during which most of the major monuments of the site were built.In the third century,Aphrodisias became the capital of the new Roman province of Caria,and from the fourth century, the city was also the seat of a bishop.The continued vitality of the city through the fifth century is attested by the wholesale reconstruction of the Temple of Aphrodite as a Christian basilica.By the seventh century,however, Aphrodisias was once again a small village, and so it remained until the fourteenth century,when the site was finally abandoned.

LAODIKEIA

Laodikeia is located within the borders of the villages of Eskihisar,Goncali,Korucuk and Bozburun,six kilometres north of the modern city of Denizli.The site is on the road to Pamukkale (Hierapolis), which is approximately ten kilometres to the north.

Laodikeia is also situated at the crossroads of main routes that connect western,central and southern Anatolia with each other.Set at the fertile plains of the Lycos River,Laodikeia lies on a high plateau surrounded on three sides by rivers: the Lycos (modern Curuksu) to the northeast, the Kapros (modern Baslicay) to the southeast and the Asopos (modern Gumuscay – Goncali Deresi) to the northwest.

Laodikeia is one of the important archaeological remains for the region along with Hierapolis (Pamukkale) and Tripolis.Excavations at Laodikeia show that the city was settled continuously from the Chalcolithic Period (Copper Age, 5500 BC) to 7th century AD.The name of the settlement was,in turn, Rhoas (Asopos Hill),Diopolis(City of Zeus)and finally Laodikeia.

The settlement was founded as a city in the Hellenistic Period.The Hellenistic city was founded by the commander Seleucus Antiochus II in the name of his wife Laodike around the middle of the third century BC.The region later became part of the Roman Empire.Throughout its history,Laodikeia suffered many earthquakes and was rebuilt numerous times.It was finally abandoned after a severe earthquake in the reign of Emperor Focas ( 602-610 AD).Its citizens settled in Denizli – Kaleici and Hisarkoy on the north slopes of Mt. Salbakos (modern Babadag), after the city's abandonment. Laodikeia was one of the Seven Churches named in the Book of Revelation and later became a metropolitan city in the Early Byzantine period.

During the Hellenistic Period the city was designed on the Hippodamian grid plan where the streets cross at right angles or run parallel to each other.The golden age of the city was from the 1st to 5th centuries AD.Most of the structures and the city itself have been developed during this period.

Encompassing an area of about five square kilometres,Laodikeia boasts the following impressive remains: the largest ancient stadium of Anatolia (measuring 285 x 70m), two theatres (Western and Northern Theatres), four bath complexes (East, Central, West and East Roman baths), five agoras (East, Central, West, South and North Agoras), five fountains (nymphaea; East Byzantine, Caracalla, Septimus Severus, B and West Fountains), two monumental portals (Ephesus and Syria Gates), a council house (bouleuterion), with a peristyle design (House A Complexes, Peristyle House with Church), temples (Temple A), churches (East, North, West, Central, Southwest Churches and Laodikeia Church), public latrines, two large water distribution terminals and monumental colonnaded streets (Syria, Ephesus, Stadium Streets). The city is surrounded by cemeteries (Necropolis) on its four sides.

The most important income of the city was commerce, thanks to its location on the crossroads of major trade routes. The foremost  trade was textiles. In addition, marble, grain and livestock commerce also provided an important  income to the city.

TRIPOLIS

The ancient city of Tripolis is located in the municipality of Yenicekent,in the town of Buldan in the Denizli Province.The city has been mentioned by many ancient writers,most importantly by Plinius and Ptolemaios, and it was also visited by travellers from the 17th century onwards.

In the Hellenistic period,the city of Tripolis was in the crossroads of the Phrygia,Caria and Lydia regions. It was first founded with the name of Apollonia within the Lydia region and it was known as Antoniopolis for a short while.In the 1st century BC,it was given the name Tripolis due to its location in the crossroads of these three regions and because people from these three regions settled in this city.The name Tripolis continued to be used until the city was abandoned in the 7th century AD.

Although the history of Tripolis goes back to the Hellenistic Period,the archaeological material found during the sight surveys conducted in its surroundings prove that the settlement here can be traced back to 4000 BC.

Most of the structures visible in Tripolis are dated from the Roman and Byzantine periods.A notable exception is a mound located 2.5 km north-west, from which the fragments of pottery and stone tools, dating back to the times of Chalcolithic (Copper Age) to the Late Bronze Age (4000-1200 BC),were excavated.

KAKLIK CAVE

Kaklik Cave is one of the lesser known places among visitors in Denizli region.Kaklik Cave is usually referred as the Underground Pamukkale and it's easy to understand why.Kaklik Cave has the same travertine structure as Pamukkale.The difference, however, it's smaller in size and it's inside a cave.The cave came to light after the collapse of its roof.After opening to tourists in 2002,Kaklik Cave started to earn visitor attraction.

COLOSSAE

Colossae was a large and prosperous city during the 5th and 4th centuries BC.It was eventually eclipsed in importance during the Hellenistic and Roman periods by the neighboring cities of Laodicea and Hierapolis.The area produced fine wool and textiles.The economic prosperity of the city was also due to its being located on the main trade route from the Aegean coast to the Euphrates.Like Laodicea and Hierapolis,Colossae was damaged by a severe earthquake in 60 AD.By the 9th century the site was abandoned,its remaining inhabitants having moved to the nearby town of Chonae (modern Honaz.)

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